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Data Types and Modifiers in C++ Programming

C++ Basic Concepts

In this lesson, we will learn about the Data Types and Data Type Modifiers in the C++ programming language along with size and range of built-in data types.

What is Data Type

Data Type in C++ is used during variable declaration to restrict the type of data to be stored. Whenever a variable is defined in C++, the compiler allocates some memory for that variable based on the data type with which it is declared. C++ supports the following data types given below.

data types in C++ programming language
  • The short name of Integer data type is int.
  • The short name of Float data type is float.
  • The short name of Double data type is double.
  • The short name of Character data type is char.
  • The short name of Boolean data type is bool.
  • The short name of Void data type is void.
  • The short name of Wide Character data type is wchar_t.

What is Data Type Modifiers

Data type modifiers in C++ program are used with the Integer, Double and Character data types to modify the length of data that an Integer, Double or Character data type can hold. Data Type modifiers available in C++ are:

  • signed - It is default modifier of int and char data type if no modifier is specified. It says that user can store negative or positive values.
  • unsigned - It is used on int and char data type. It says that user can store only positive values.
  • short - It limits user to store small int values and occupies 2 bytes of memory space in every operating system. It can be used only on integer data type.
  • long - This can be used to increased size of the int or double data types to 2 more bytes.

Below table summarizes the modified size and range of built-in data types in C++

Data Type Storage Size Range
short int 2 bytes -32,768 to 32,767
unsigned short int 2 bytes 0 to 65,535
unsigned int 4 bytes 0 to 4,294,967,295
int 4 bytes -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647
long int 4 bytes -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647
unsigned long int 4 bytes 0 to 4,294,967,295
long long int 8 bytes -(2^63) to (2^63)-1
unsigned long long int 8 bytes 0 to 18,446,744,073,709,551,615
signed char 1 byte -128 to 127
unsigned char 1 byte 0 to 255
float 4 bytes 1.2E-38 to 3.4E+38 (6 decimal places)
double 8 bytes 2.3E-308 to 1.7E+308 (15 decimal places)
long double 12 bytes 3.4E-4932 to 1.1E+4932 (19 decimal places)
wchar_t 2 or 4 bytes 1 wide character

Note : Above values may vary from compiler to compiler. In above example, we have considered GCC 64 bit Compiler.

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